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Clinical Studies

Study Extract Laser Bio-Stimulation for laser assisted Hair Regeneration, Re-Growth & Revitalization

Dr. Perricone explains Light Therapy

Dr. Perricone on Infrared Therapy

Dr. Hamblin from Harvard talks Photo Medicine

Dr. Hamblin from Harvard explains PhotoTherapy

Mechanisms of Laser-Induced Hair Re-growth

Michael R. Hamblin, PhD, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School

hps “Absorption of photons by molecules leads to electronically excited states and consequently can lead to acceleration of electron transfer reactions [10]. More electron transport necessarily leads to increased production of ATP [11]. Light induced increase in ATP synthesis and increased proton gradient leads to an increasing activity of the Na+/H+ and Ca2+/Na+ antiporters and of all the ATP driven carriers for ions, such as Na+/K+ TPase and Ca2+ pumps. ATP is the substrate for adenyl cyclase, and therefore the ATP level controls the level of cAMP. Both Ca2+ and cAMP are very important second messengers. Ca2+ especially regulates almost every process in the human body (muscle contraction, blood coagulation, signal transfer in nerves, gene expression, etc.).”

Michael R. Hamblin, PhD, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School

In the hair follicle cells, testosterone converts into the biologically more active metabolite, 5a-dihydro- testosterone (DHT) catalyzed by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. This hormone binds to androgenic receptors in the hair follicle and the specific bond triggers cellular processes, which reduce the anagen phase of the hair cycle. For this reason the hair passes earlier into the telogen phase and falls out. Gradually, over succeeding cycles terminal hair converts into thinner and shorter vellus hair (i.e. the retrograde phase of the cycle) and the hair follicle becomes minute.

Study Extract Laser Acne PhotoFacial

bjd

British Journal of Dermatology 2000; 142: 973+978.

Phototherapy with blue (415 nm) and red (660 nm) light in the treatment of acne vulgaris

Summary

In this study we have evaluated the use of blue light (peak at 415 nm) and a mixed blue and red light (peaks at 415 and 660 nm) in the treatment of acne vulgaris. One hundred and seven patientswith mild to moderate acne vulgaris were randomized into four treatment groups: blue light, mixed blue and red light, cool white light and 5% benzoyl peroxide cream. Subjects in the phototherapy groups used portable light sources and irradiation was carried out daily for 15 min. Comparative assessment between the three light sources was made in an observer-blinded fashion, but this could not be achieved for the use of benzoyl peroxide. Assessments were performed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks of active treatment a mean improvement of 76% (95% confidence interval 66 + 87) in inflammatory lesions was achieved by the combined blue+red light phototherapy; this was significantly superior to that achieved by blue light (at weeks 4 and 8 but not week 12), benzoyl peroxide (at weeks 8 and 12) or white light (at each assessment). The final mean improvement in comedones by using blue+red light was 58% (95% confidence interval 45+71), again better than that achieved by the other active treatments used, although the differences did not reach significant levels. We have found that phototherapy with mixed blue+red light, probably by combining antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action, is an effective means of treating acne vulgaris of mild to moderate severity, with no significant short-term adverse effects. Key words: acne, blue+red light, phototherapy .

Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes by its endogenic porphyrins after illumination with high intensity blue light

Helena Ashkenazi a, Zvi Malik a, Yoram Harth b, Yeshayahu Nitzan

Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel b Elisha Medical Center, Haifa, Israel

Received 11 February 2002; received in revised form 4 July 2002; accepted 24 July 2002 First published online 2 November 2002

Abstract

Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive, microaerophilic bacterium that causes skin wounds. It is known to naturally produce high amounts of intracellular porphyrins. The results of the present study confirm that the investigated strain of P. acnes is capable of producing endogenic porphyrins with no need for any trigger molecules. Extracts from growing cultures have demonstrated emission peaks around 612 nm when excited at 405 nm, which are characteristic for porphyrins. Endogenic porphyrins were determined and quantified after their extraction from the bacterial cells by fluorescence intensity and by elution retention time on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The porphyrins produced by P. acnes are mostly coproporphyrin, as shown by the HPLC elution patterns. Addition of N-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhanced intracellular porphyrin synthesis and higher amounts of coproporphyrin have been found. Eradication of P. acnes by its endogenic porphyrins was examined after illumination with intense blue light at 407^420 nm. The viability of 24 h cultures grown anaerobically in liquid medium was reduced by less than two orders of magnitude when illuminated once with a light dose of 75 J cm32. Better photodynamic effects were obtained when cultures were illuminated twice or three times consecutively with a light dose of 75 J cm32 and an interval of 24 h between illuminations. The viability of the culture under these conditions decreased by four orders of magnitude after two illuminations and by five orders of magnitude after three illuminations. When ALA-triggered cultures were illuminated with intense blue light at a light dose of 75 J cm32 the viability of the treated cultures decreased by seven orders of magnitude. This decrease in viability can occur even after a single exposure of illumination for the indicated light intensity. X-ray microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural damages to membranes in the illuminated P. acnes. Illumination of the endogenous coproporphyrin with blue light (407^420 nm) apparently plays a major role in P. acnes photoinactivation. A treatment protocol with a series of several illuminations or illumination after application of ALA may be suitable for curing acne. Treatment by both pathways may overcome the resistance of P. acnes to antibiotic treatment. < 2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:Endogenic porphyrins; Phototreatment of acne; Illumination by blue light; Photoeradication; Acne; Propionibacterium acnes Bumah VV, Masson-Meyers DS, Cashin SE, Enwemeka CS.

Source 1 College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

uwmWavelength and Bacterial Density Influence the Bactericidal Effect of Blue Light on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Summary

Abstract Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wavelength and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) density on the bactericidal effect of 405 and 470?nm light. Background data: It is recognized that 405 and 470?nm light-emitting diode (LED) light kill MRSA in standard 5*106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL cultures; however, the effect of bacterial density on the bactericidal effect of each wavelength is not known. Methods: In three experiments, we cultured and plated US300 MRSA at four densities. Then, we irradiated each plate once with either wavelength at 0, 1, 3, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 220?J/cm2. Results: Irradiation with either wavelength reduced bacterial colonies at each density (p0.05). More bacteria were cleared as density increased; however, the proportion of colonies cleared, inversely decreased as density increased-the maximum being 100%, 96%, and 78% for 3*106, 5*106, and 7*106 CFU/mL cultures, respectively. Both wavelengths had similar effects on the sparser 3*106 and 5*106 CFU/mL cultures, but in the denser 7*106 CFU/mL culture, 405?nm light cleared more bacteria at each fluence (p < 0.001). To determine the effect of beam penetration, denser 8*106 and 12*106 CFU/mL culture plates were irradiated either from the top, the bottom, or both directions. More colonies were eradicated from plates irradiated from top and bottom, than from plates irradiated from top or bottom at the same sum total fluences (p< 0.001). Conclusions: The bactericidal effect of LED blue light is limited more by light penetration of bacterial layers than by bacterial density per se.

Study Extract Laser Lipo

Fat Liquefaction: Effect of Low-Level Laser Energy on Adipose Tissue

Rodrigo Neira, M.D., Jose Arroyave, B.S.C.E., T.E.M., S.E.M., Hugo Ramirez, M.V., Clara Lucia Ortiz, M.D., Efrain Solarte, Dr. rer. nat., Federico Sequeda, Ph.D., and Maria Isabel Gutierrez, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D.

Study Extract

“This study examined whether 635-nm low-level lasers had an effect on adipose tissue in vivo and the procedural implementation of lipoplasty/liposuction techniques. The experiment investigated the effect of 635-nm, 10-mW diode laser radiation with exclusive energy dispersing optics…. were applied on human adipose tissue taken from lipectomy samples of 12 healthy women…. studied using the protocols of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy…. Nonirradiated tissue samples were taken for reference. More than 180 images were recorded and professionally evaluated….All microscopic results showed that without laser exposure the normal adipose tissue appeared as a grape-shaped node. After laser exposure, 80 percent of the fat was released from the adipose cells; after further laser exposure, 99 percent of the fat was released from the adipocyte. The released fat was collected in the interstitial space. Transmission electron microscopic images of the adipose tissue taken at _60,000 showed a transitory pore and complete deflation of the adipocytes. The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques.”

Fat Liquefaction: Effect of Low-Level Laser Energy on Adipose Tissue

Rodrigo Neira, M.D., Jose Arroyave, B.S.C.E., T.E.M., S.E.M., Hugo Ramirez, M.V., Clara Lucia Ortiz, M.D., Efrain Solarte, Dr. rer. nat., Federico Sequeda, Ph.D., and Maria Isabel Gutierrez, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D.

Study Extract

Optimum Power

“It is known that power density and exposure time results show that laser power below 2.91 mW could enhance cell roliferation, whereas higher power had no effect. Stimulatory effects are most pronounced at irradiation times between 0.5 and 6 minutes. The Arndt-Schultz biological law states that weak stimuli excite physiologic activity, moderately strong stimuli empower it, strong stimuli retard it, and very strong stimuli inhibit physiologic activity. Laboratory analyses show that the 10-mW laser is more effective than a 100-mW laser for cell mitosis.”

“After assessing all known variables, we developed our hypothesis: The application of low level laser energy-effectively administered according to established criteria addressing coherence, wavelength, and power-to proven ipoplasty/liposuction processes will result in a significantly safer, shorter, and relatively trauma-free procedure. dentifying this procedure as laser-assisted liposuction, our multidisciplinary team of experts set out to establish proof for our hypothesis using scientifically proved testing methods to evaluate the laser effects on the adipose cells.”

Fat Liquefaction: Effect of Low-Level Laser Energy on Adipose Tissue

Rodrigo Neira, M.D., Jose Arroyave, B.S.C.E., T.E.M., S.E.M., Hugo Ramirez, M.V., Clara Lucia Ortiz, M.D., Efrain Solarte, Dr. rer. nat., Federico Sequeda, Ph.D., and Maria Isabel Gutierrez, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D.

Study Extract

“This study examined whether 635-nm low-level lasers had an effect on adipose tissue in vivo and the procedural implementation of lipoplasty/liposuction techniques. The experiment investigated the effect of 635-nm, 10-mW diode laser radiation with exclusive energy dispersing optics…. were applied on human adipose tissue taken from lipectomy samples of 12 healthy women…. studied using the protocols of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy…. Nonirradiated tissue samples were taken for reference. More than 180 images were recorded and professionally evaluated….All microscopic results showed that without laser exposure the normal adipose tissue appeared as a grape-shaped node. After laser exposure, 80 percent of the fat was released from the adipose cells; after further laser exposure, 99 percent of the fat was released from the adipocyte. The released fat was collected in the interstitial space. Transmission electron microscopic images of the adipose tissue taken at _60,000 showed a transitory pore and complete deflation of the adipocytes. The low-level laser energy affected the adipose cell by causing a transitory pore in the cell membrane to open, which permitted the fat content to go from inside to outside the cell. The cells in the interstitial space and the capillaries remained intact. Low-level laser-assisted lipoplasty has a significant impact on the procedural implementation of lipoplasty techniques.”

uwmEfficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction.

Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y, Greenway FL.

Source

School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used in medical applications, but scientific studies of its efficacy and the mechanism by which it causes loss of fat from fat cells for body contouring are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness and mechanism by which 635-680 nm LLLT acts as a non-invasive body contouring intervention method.

METHODS:

Forty healthy men and women ages 18-65 years with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 were randomized 1:1 to laser or control treatment. Subject's waistlines were treated 30 min twice a week for 4 weeks. Standardized waist circumference measurements and photographs were taken before and after treatments 1, 3, and 8. Subjects were asked not to change their diet or exercise habits. In vitro assays were conducted to determine cell lysis, glycerol, and triglyceride release.

RESULTS:

Data were analyzed for those with body weight fluctuations within 1.5 kg during 4 weeks of the study. Each treatment gave a 0.4-0.5 cm loss in waist girth.Cumulative girth loss after 4 weeks was -2.15 cm (-0.78 + 2.82 vs. 1.35 + 2.64 cm for the control group,p < 0.05). A blinded evaluation of standardized pictures showed statistically significant cosmetic improvement after 4 weeks of laser treatment. In vitro studies suggested that laser treatment increases fat loss from adipocytes by release of triglycerides, without inducing lipolysis or cell lysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

LLLT achieved safe and significant girth loss sustained over repeated treatments and cumulative over 4 weeks of eight treatments. The girth loss from the waist gave clinically and statistically significant cosmetic improvement.